Q. 51. Who sins against this commandment, and in what manner?
R. Sinning mortally against this commandment are all those who, first of all, recognize no God, according to the Psalmist: "The fool said in his heart: 'There is no God.'"  Then, sinning against this command, in the second place, are they who posit many gods, to whom they show worship and honor as if to the true God, as the pagans did. Thirdly, there are those who surrender themselves to the devil, as sorcerers and those that invoke them and bear their charms. Fourthly, there are those who hold to superstitions and believe in them. Likewise with those who in illness have recourse to the mutterings of old women, etc. In the fifth place are they who take auguries from all things. In the sixth place are the heretics who do not believe, in the orthodox manner, that God is one in nature and three in persons. In the seventh place are they who confide their cares more in their association of friends than in the grace and providence of God, and then in his teaching, genius and strength. In the eighth place are they who love themselves, temporal goods and other things more than the Lord God. In a word, one sins against this commandment, whenever he acknowledges in any fashion anything else in place of the true God, in which he places all his faith and hope.
Q. 52. What must be understood concerning the invocation of the Saints, since this is an appropriate place for discussing this matter?
R. We invoke the Saints that they might intercede for us with the Lord God, but not as other gods, but as friends of God; whom they serve, praise and worship. We stand in need of their help, however, not because they aid us by their own power, but because they bring about the grace of God for us by their intercessory prayers. For Sacred Scripture so instructs us, who are wanderers here, to ask the saints to intercede for us with the Lord God, as the Apostle did, in saying: "I beseech you, therefore, brothers, through our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the charity of the Holy Spirit, that you help me in your prayers for me to God.  And elsewhere: "In whom we trust that he will yet also deliver us; you helping withal in prayer for us, that for this gift obtained for us, by the means of many persons, thanks may be given by many in our behalf."  But, he prayed to the Lord God for others, with the same one giving testimony: "In my prayers making supplication for you all, with joy."  Two things are gathered from this evidence: first, that the Saints in this life asked others to intercede with the Lord God; secondly, that they said prayers and interceded for one another, not only privately, but also publicly, as Scripture gives evidence: "Peter, therefore, was kept in prison; but prayer was made without ceasing by the Church unto God for him."  Since they have no obstacle, so much more after death do the same Saints pray to God for us. And if they pray to God much more for their brothers, particularly for those who need their intercession to him. To this point Scripture says: "And the four and twenty ancients, who sit on their seats in the sight of God, fell on their faces and adored God, saying: "We give you thanks, O Lord God Almighty.'"  And later? "And that you should render reward to your servants, the Prophets and the Saints, and to them that fear your name, little and great." 
But one may say: "they are unaware and do not listen to our prayers."
Response: Granted, that they of themselves do not know nor hear our prayers; nevertheless, though revelation and divine grace, which is abundantly bestowed upon them by God, they do know and hear. Just as Eliseus knew, what his servant did on the road,  so also do all the Saints know and hear the needs of petitioners through divine revelation. In addition: we implore the Angels to intercede with God for us, because they carry to the divine majesty prayers, almsgivings and all our good works; but the Saints after death are as angels; therefore, they can know our needs and hear our prayers and intercede for us. From this it is evident that through the innovation of the Saints, who, as faithful servants waiting upon the divine majesty, intercede for use with the one true God, the divine commandment is not broken by us; it is rather by the disregard of the intervention of the Saints that the divine majesty is greatly outraged. And in conclusion of the teaching on this commandment, two things must be mentioned in the orthodox-catholic manner: first, the authority of the commandment of the Decalogue is not impaired by the invocation of the Saints, nor is this against the intercession of Him, since the very honor which we offer the Saints, redounds and refers to the divine majesty, which the Saints have pleased by their faith and exemplary life; we justly, therefore, honor the Saints of God, in accord with the Psalmist: "But to me your friends, O God, are made exceedingly honorable."  So through them we beg divine help. Secondly, this commandment forbids us to worship any creature; so we do not revere the Saints of God with the worship of latria, but invoke them as our brothers and friends of God, so that they might beg divine assistance for us their brothers and intercede for us with the majesty of God; This is not in contradiction to the teaching of the Decalogue. For just as the Israelites did not sin in asking Moses to intercede to God for them, so we also do not sin in invoking the aid of the Saints.
Q. 53. What is the second commandment?
R. "You shall not make to yourself a graven thing, nor the likeness of any thing that is in the heaven above, or in the earth beneath, nor of those things that are in the waters under the earth. You shall not adore them, nor serve them." 
Q. 54. How is this commandment to be understood?
R. This commandment is distinct from the first (6); for it teaches about the true God, who is one, and forbids a host of gods. In regard, however, to external and ritual matters, there is found in it, to be sure, that not only are we bound not to worship false gods, but also not to make graven images in their honor, nor to revere them by the worship of latria. They sin against this commandment, who worship idols as true gods and offer them sacrifices and place all their trust and hope in them, as the Psalmist witnesses: "The idols of the gentiles are silver and gold, the work of men's hands. They have a mouth, but they speak not; they have eyes, but they see not. They have ears, but they hear not; neither is there any breath in their mouths. Let them that make them be like to them, and everyone that trusts in them."  Sinning against this commandment are those who are given to avarice, about whom the Scripture says: "Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth, fornication, uncleanness, lust, evil concupiscence and covetousness, which is the service of idols."  They also sin who are occupied with gluttony, by the witness of Sacred Scripture: "Whose God is their belly; whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly things."  They also sin against this who employ incantations, who believe fate to be true, who follow the omens and palmistry or cast spells on men, cattle and other animals, who carry around scribblings or place letters about their bodies, and show confidence in those letters, or prayers, or the characters in the same writings, since, whenever they scrutinize or pray to them, or even carry them about, they believe that they cannot be burned, or drowned or wounded. They also sin, who apply bandages and other cures, which medical practice condemns, whether by words or signs or any other forbidden things, whether by ligatures or loosenings, such as earrings or finger rings and similar things.
Q. 55. What must be understood about icons, which the orthodox Church reveres?
R. There is a great difference between idols and icons. For idols are artificial things and the invention of men, as the Apostle testifies: "For we know that an idol is nothing in the world."  But, an icon is the representation of a real thing, that existed in the world, as the icon of our Savior, the most Blessed Virgin Mary and all the saints. In addition, the pagans were worshipping the idols as God and even bringing sacrifices to them, thinking that silver and gold were gods, as Nebuchodonosor. But we, while we revere the icons and worship them, do not honor the colors or wood, but mentally venerate and respect with the devotion of dulia those saints whose icons there are, recalling their presence with our eyes: so that, when we worship the crucifix, we recall in our mind Christ hanging on the cross for our salvation, to whom we bow our heads and bend our knees in thanksgiving. Similarly, when we revere the icon of the most Blessed Virgin Mary, as certainly we mentally bend our knees and heads before the Holy Mother of God, so we make her blessed above all women, proclaiming this with the Archangel Gabriel. Therefore, the cult of holy icons in the orthodox catholic Church does not violate this commandment, because it is not the same thing which we offer to God; and this is rendered by the orthodox not to artificial things, but to the holy persons whom they represent. For, just as the Cherubim, overshadowing the arc of the covenant, represented real Cherubim in heaven, serving the Divine Majesty, and received worship and honor from the Israelites without the breaking of the divine commandment, and similarly, just as the Israelites worshipped the arc of the covenant and attended it with proper honor, committing no crime nor breaking the commandment of the decalogue, but rather rendering glory to God, so also we, when we revere the icons, are nor transgressors of the commandment of the decalogue, but rather proclaim God wondrous in his saints. It must be seen to, however, that every icon has an inscription, of whoever it is, so that the worshipper's intention might be more conveniently satisfied. But, for the greater establishment of the cult of icons, the Church of God struck with an anathema all the iconoclasts at the Seventh Ecumenical Council and determined forever the cult of icons, as is evident from the Ninth Canon of the same Council.
Q. 56. Why, then, was the one in the Old Testament worthy of praise, who broke the bronze serpent raised by Moses?
R. Because the Jews began to fall away from the worship of the true God, worshipping, to be sure, the serpent as true God. Wherefore, in removing further evil, he broke the serpent so that they would not have the occasion for idolatry; but, when the Israelites did not worship that serpent with the cult of latria, they were rebuked by no one. But Christians do not worship icons as gods with the cult of latria, nor do they fail in the worship of the true God, but only revere the Saints, as friends of God, in their image by the cult of dulia, begging for themselves their intercession with God. But, if one does otherwise out of simpleness, he should be instructed, rather than discard the cult of images from the Church.
Q. 57. What is the third commandment?
R. "You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that shall take the name of the Lord his God in vain." 
Q. 58. What does this commandment teach?
R. It teaches first that the name of the Lord God should be held in highest honor, not using it in jest, nor at frivolous and improper occasion. Secondly, it teaches us not to take the name of the Lord God when we are inclined to assert falsehoods and commit perjury. Thirdly, we are taught not to provide anyone with a reason and opportunity for committing perjury. Fourthly, we are taught that those who take his name are to satisfy and fulfill their oath, as Scripture says: "When you have made a vow to the Lord your God, you shall not delay to pay it, because the Lord your God will require it, and if you delay, it shall be imputed to you for a sin."  This regards all of those who vow in baptism to God to keep the orthodox faith until death and later fall away from it because of some personal reasons, whether threats to their person, or loss of goods or privation of life, by which they incur evident perjury, from which the Apostle Paul was free, as when he speaks of himself: "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith." 
Q. 59. What is the fourth commandment?
R. "Remember that you keep holy the Sabbath day. Six days shall you labor, and shall do all your works. But on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God: you shall do no work on it, you nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your manservant, nor your maidservant, nor your beast, nor the stranger that is within your gates." 
Q. 60. How is this commandment to be understood?
R. This must be considered a sign of the collective blessing of men, in so far as the day was established by God in order that men might reflect upon with lively memory the divine blessings they have received; such that, while he created in six days the whole world from nothing and on the seventh day he refrained from work, he made holy the seventh day, so that men on that day, having put aside all their works, might recall the blessings of God conferred on the creation of the world and bless and glorify the Lord God. Also, when he led the Israelites out of Egypt, he established the feast of the Passover through Moses in memory of the deliverance of Israel from the slavery of Pharaoh. Mention is often made of other days to be observed even in other places of the Old Testament. We Christians, however, in place of the Sabbath, observe Sunday, because the renewal of the whole world took place on Sunday through the resurrection of Christ, as well as the deliverance of the human race from the slavery of the devil. But, during the entire day we should abstain from all works and labors and should spend the whole day in prayers and devout meditations on the divine blessings conferred upon us, so that even the servants and captives of either sex should not perform labor on that day, but attend the divine services and pray by glorifying God. We are bound by this commandment to observe all those days designated by the Church to be kept holy, as the solemn feasts of the Nativity of Christ the Lord, Circumcision, Epiphany, Purification, Resurrection and the Ascension of Christ. Likewise, in regard to the feasts of the most Blessed Virgin, the Apostles, Martyrs and other Saints. The Church teaches about the celebration of Sunday in Canon 91 of the Sixth Ecumenical Council. (7) But, the reason for the transferal of the Sabbath to Sunday is because Christ is the Lord of the Sabbath, in accord with Sacred Scripture: "For the Son of man is Lord even of the Sabbath."  If, therefore, Christ is the Lord of the Sabbath, then the Sabbath was transferred to Sunday for a just reason, partly so that Christ the Lord would not be subject to substitution, and partly because on this and no other day Christ the Lord rose from the dead, at which time the renewal of the world came about in regard to the nearness of eternal salvation.
Q. 61. What is the fifth commandment?
R. "Honor your father and your mother, that you may be long-lived upon the land, which the Lord your God will give you." 
Q. 62. How is this commandment to be understood?
R. This commandment directs us to honor our parents and show them all worthy respect, since they begot and educated us. Even natural reason itself, if we would not have had a divine commandment, convinces us that is right for us to love and honor our parents, because we are indebted to them for blessings we have received, which we cannot give back, since it is impossible for us to generate them in turn. But, because we receive our common blessings (except spiritual ones) from no one, God excepted, but our parents, so we are bound to show them more love and respect than to anyone else. Also, this commandment includes by the word "parents" all those from whom we received any benefits, such as Religious, Teachers, Masters, Authorities, Kings and Officials and such similar to these. The Apostle expressed this with the words: "Let every soul be subject to higher powers.''  And later: "Honor, to whom honor."  And he calls them fools, who fail to obey their parents. Nevertheless, this should be noted: when it is a question of the glory of God, or his holy commandment, parents are not to be listened to more than God, according to the saying of Christ: "He that loves father or mother more than me, is not worthy of me."  This also must be understood in regard to all authorities. Finally, this respect and esteem for authorities are of the type that there always should be good-will in words, obedience and other things.
Q. 63. What is the sixth commandment?
R. "You shall not kill." 
Q. 64. How is this commandment to be understood?
R. Teaching is given in this commandment that no one walking in the fear of God may perpetrate murder, but not only in regard to the body, but also in regard to the soul. Those who kill according to the body, take away temporal life; but those who kill according to the soul, rob one of eternal life, and the latter are greater murderers, such as falsely teaching heretics, as well as evil Christians proffering the example of a dissolute life, since they certainly scandalize, about whom Scripture says: "But he that shall scandalize one of these little ones that believe in me, it were better for him that a millstone be hanged about his neck, and that he should be drowned in the depth of the sea."  Murder is wont to be committed not only in the deed itself, but also by plan, assistance, encouragement and agreement. Finally, included in this commandment are all the mental states, from which murder proceeds, certainly pride, envy, hatred, greed and others of this type.
Q. 65. What is the seventh commandment?
R. "You shall not commit adultery." 
Q. 66. How is this commandment to be understood?
R. Christ the Lord ordered this commandment to be more perfectly observed, when he says: "Whoever shall look on a woman to lust after her, has already committed adultery with her in his heart."  Fornication is two-fold. The first is spiritual, the second carnal. Spiritual fornication is when someone denies the true catholic orthodox faith and embraces diverse sects, about which Sacred Scripture teaches: "You have destroyed all them that are disloyal to you."  But carnal fornication is an act of lust, performed with another's wife, and nearly every fornication applies here. Forbidden by this commandment are shamlessness, lustful songs, base dances, obscene jokes, in describing which the Apostle says: "But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not so much as be named among you, as becomes saints; or obscenity, or foolish talking, or scurrility, which is to no purpose." 
Q. 67. What is the eighth commandment?
R. "You shall not steal." 
Q. 68. How is this commandment to be understood?
R. It is taught in this commandment that we should keep nothing of another person obtained in any unjust manner, which is wont to occur through plunder, robbery or the holding back of another's property. Here also should be understood the detractors of one's honor beyond fairness and those that receive, as they do, bribery from their subjects, as well as usury, concerning all of whom the Apostle says: "Neither thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor railers, nor extortioners shall possess the kingdom of God."  And this concerns, finally, all those agreements, in which trust must be kept. Q. 69. What is the ninth commandment? R. "You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor." 
Q. 70. How is this commandment to be understood?
R. Forbidden by this commandment are all lies brought forward against one's neighbor, or through detraction of someone's good reputation because of some ill-will or vengeance; in a word, we say that we should avoid every vice, lest we become sons of the devil, similar to those about whom Christ the Lord says: "You are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father you will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and he stood not in the truth, because truth is not in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks of his own, for he is a liar and the father thereof."  Those engaged in law must, to the greatest degree, observe this commandment, so that they do not transgress justice by false evidence, brought forward either in writing or in witnesses; otherwise, they become sons of the devil and sons of eternal Gehenna.
Q. 71. What is the tenth commandment?
R. "You shall not covet your neighbor's wife, nor his house, nor his field, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is his."  (8)
Q. 72. How is this commandment to be understood?
R. This commandment is the most perfect in regard to love of neighbor, because it forbids one to do, even as Christian perfection itself requires, not only the external, but also the internal things, which lead to evil from both mind and will; and the one that keeps this commandment, fulfills justice in regard to neighbor, since you would not do to another, what you do not wish for yourself. For the salvation of all Christians consists in this, that nothing is desired against the Lord God and neighbor, but rather that one should love the Lord God more than himself, and his neighbor even as himself. And when we shall have performed these works in this world, by the help of the grace of God, and with the orthodox-catholic faith, we shall be praising in heaven without doubt in the age to come, when the perfection of love is received, One God in the Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Unto ages of ages. Amen.