Q. 29. Since the beatitudes pertain to hope, I ask: how many are there?
R. The beatitudes, which Christ the Lord determined in the Gospel, are nine;  the holy Chrysostom announced the same thing in these words: "Moses indeed gave ten commandments, but Jesus, the Lord of Moses, gave nine beatitudes." And later: "The law gave ten commandments, but Jesus nine beatitudes, preparing the crown with a triple threesome." (10)
Q. 30. Which is the first beatitude?
R. "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." 
Q. 31. Which teaching does the first beatitude contain in itself?
R. It contains in itself the teaching in respect to the world and riches, which, even if they are bestowed abundantly upon someone by the grace of God, one must use nevertheless not as a real despot but as a dispensor of the same, lest one become attracted to them by a very great desire within his heart, as says the Psalmist: "If riches abound, set not your heart upon them"  And we should care nothing for our own glory in accord with Christian perfection, but all things should be communal, as the first Christians had done, concerning whom Sacred Scripture witnesses thus: "And the multitude of believers had but one heart and one soul; neither did anyone say that aught of the things which he possessed, was his own; but all things were common unto them" And later: "For as many as were owners of lands or houses, sold them, and brought the price of the things they sold, and laid it down before the feet of the Apostles; and distribution was made to every one, according as he had need."  And elsewhere: "And all they that believed, were together, and had all things common."  This virtue is called poverty of spirit and demands, nevertheless, that each member of the community has his necessary supply of food and clothing, with honesty and fairness without excess, according to discretion. Religious have the primary role in this virtue, for they should not be concerned with convenience nor use the required amount of food and clothing, but should suffer a lack of both of these for the sake of having a greater reward in heaven, using the words of the Apostle: "Even unto this hour we both hunger and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no fixed abode, and we labor, working with our own hands; we are reviled, and we bless; we are persecuted, and we suffer it; we are blasphemed, and we entreat; we are made as the refuse of this world, the offscouring of all even unto now."  Christ promises the kingdom of heaven, therefore, for this type of suffering; nevertheless, those that have possessions and riches are not excluded from eternal life and salvation, when they use them justly, certainly by proffering their income for the needs of the Churches and by providing alms for the needs of the poor, the traveling, the sick and the abandoned, just as Zaccheus did, declaiming before Christ the Lord in these words: "Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have wronged any man of anything, I restore him fourfold."  Those, however, who have come to extreme poverty through gluttony and extravagance, should expect no reward from God for it, but rather are to do penance for the loss of their goods and unfair management, but, nevertheless, should not be deprived of the mercy of the orthodox; if they turn back to moderation of virtue, they will not be without reward.
Q. 32. Which is the second beatitude?
R. "Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted." (11)
Q. 33. What does this beatitude teach?
R. This beatitude teaches first that those orthodox men are blessed, who during the entire time of their life grieve and weep for their sins, committed in offense to God and their neighbor, according to the words of the Prophet: "The children of Israel shall come, they and the children of Judah together, going and weeping they shall make haste, and shall seek the Lord their God."  Those who weep because of some worldly suffering, as, for example, the criminals, have no share in this beatitude, since they are not mourning their sins, but rather out of dread of punishment, which they are obliged to suffer for their crimes, or lose some other temporal good or something similar. Secondly, this beatitude teaches that happy and blessed are those men who please God by their weeping and sorrow of heart for the sins of their neighbors, praying to God that he may grant them recovery, as conversion to the Church of heretics and an amelioration of life to those living dissolutely. Thirdly, this beatitude teaches that blessed are those who suffer oppression from the rich and powerful, being deprived unjustly and illegally of their goods; remaining in this state, they should not seek vengeance, but should please God by praying in tears and sorrow of heart, directing all their hope and confidence to the mercy of God, which they have as a consolation, as long as they are really orthodox and receptive to divine grace. Mentioned also in this beatitude are those who suffer for the orthodox faith and the Church of Christ, as all the martyrs and similar ones.
Q. 34. Which is the third beatitude?
R. "Blessed are the meek, for they shall possess the land." 
Q. 35. What does this beatitude teach?
R. This beatitude teaches first the virtue of meekness, temperance and obedience„which we freely and ardently manifest without hesitation to the Lord God, the Church of Christ and our superiors (12), by imitating the meek Christ the Lord; and if we shall have been submissive to our superiors, then we have been obedient, as it were, to Christ himself the Lord; and when we offer honor and reverence to our elders, we manifest the same to Christ himself the Lord. Secondly, this beatitude teaches that those men are blessed who cause no one trouble, nor dishonor, nor harm with injurious words, nor condemn, but regard themselves as humbly as possible by always blaming their own life-deeds; excluded here are those whose obligation it is to admonish others; they use this office without passion of heart and detracting words, but unto charity, and not harm or hatred, but the spiritual edification of one's neighbor, according to the teaching of the Apostle: "Brothers, and if a man be overtaken in any fault, you, who are spiritual, instruct such a one in the spirit of meekness, considering yourself, lest you also be tempted."  Nevertheless, this wrath ought to be directed not against one's brother, but against the devil, who moves and provokes the will to perform every evil. Those who are strong in this virtue, will be masters over the land of promise, enjoying in this life the generous temporal blessings of God, and in the future life will abide to enjoy eternal comforts, as the Psalmist says: "I believe to see the good things of the Lord in the land of the living."
Q. 36. Which is the fourth beatitude?
R. "Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice, for they shall have their fill." 
Q. 37. What does this beatitude teach?
R. First, it teaches that those men are blessed, who, having been wronged, now cannot obtain justice, and this for unjust considerations, certainly because of religion, poverty, inconvenience, or that they are of different birth and similar reasons. Those who preside over judgments and enjoy the power of pleading cases should here check their consciences, lest they oppress the poor, widows and orphans by prejudice in opinions and unjust decrees. Sacred Scripture addresses these men: "Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge for the fatherless, defend the widow."  If this is not done, the wronged indeed become worthy of beatitude, as they hunger and thirst for justice, but the judges incur the wrath of the Lord God, as Scripture witnesses: "The Lord has heard the desire of the poor; your ear has heard the preparation of their heart, to judge for the fatherless and the humble, that man may no more presume to magnify himself upon earth." 
Q. 38. Which is the fifth beatitude?
R. "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy." 
Q. 39. What does this beatitude teach?
R. It teaches that those men are blessed who perform works of mercy.
Q. 40. Which are the works of mercy?
R. The works of mercy are twofold: those which concern the body, and others which pertain to the soul. (13)
Q. 41. How many works of mercy concern the body?
R. Seven. The first work of mercy is to give food to the hungry, poor and oppressed, who cannot provide food for themselves by their own labor. This offering is to be made from those goods acquired by one's own honest labor. (14) Not only must alms be given to the poor who ask for a handout or lie to sleep in guest houses, but also to those who cannot ask for alms because of shame, with this caution: let not this work of mercy become known to other men and thereby provoke robbery, as Christ the Lord says: "Therefore, when you do an alms-deed, sound not a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may be honored by men. Amen l say to you, they have received their reward." 
Q. 42. What is the second work of mercy?
R. Giving drink to the thirsty, namely those who cannot get water to quench their thirst because of either poverty or sickness; included in this point is every type of drink whenever there is a thirst; if anyone shall have taken pains to drive away the thirst from a thirsty neighbor by a cup of cold water, he will acquire beatitude, in accord with the words of the Savior in Sacred Scripture: "For whosoever shall give you to drink a cup of water in my name, because you belong to Christ, amen, I say to you, he shall not lose his reward."  This refers to all duties performed in any manner for the sake of the poor and the sick, who are unable to gain support by their own labor.
Q. 43. What is the third work of mercy?
R. To clothe the naked. Acquiring this beatitude are those who have regard for their pitiable neighbor and the latter's poverty, by clothing his nakedness; Christ the Lord holds out to them a reward on the day of judgment, as he says: "Come, you blessed of my Father, possess the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world."  Considered here are also those who may have clothing, yet not enough to chase the cold, and are otherwise endangered in their health; there is also provided, in regard to these people, a work of mercy, in the offering to them shelter useful for resisting the cold.
Q. 44. What is the fourth work of mercy?
R. To visit the imprisoned. This work should not be concerned with the reason for which someone may be imprisoned nor with the person who is being held; whoever the person may be, even if he has committed an abominable crime, nevertheless, we are obliged to visit and comfort him, lest he be broken by despair.
Q. 45. What is the fifth work of mercy?
R. To visit the sick. This work of mercy ought to be performed without any respect to consanguinity, affinity, friendship or relationship; but whatever person becomes sick, especially in a guest-house, on the street, known by nobody, he should be visited in this manner. First, offer him verbal consolation by sympathizing from the heart with his affliction. Secondly, caution the sick person to bear his affliction with a patient spirit, lest he undergo this divine visitation with bitterness of heart and so that he does not complain in heart and tongue, but rather may bless God, who has manifested his will in this man, and place strong hope in his mercy that he will be returned to health. Besides this, he should be convinced to confess his committed sins with contrition and sorrow of heart and receive the most holy Viaticum of the Eucharist, as also seeing to it that he be anointed with holy oil according to the rite of the Church. These two mysteries lead not only to the health of the soul, but greatly to the recuperation of the body. In addition, the sick person is to be urged to say intermittent prayers, and he should be commended to the public prayers of the whole Church, especially since he himself is unable to notify the Church of his sickness due to his helplessness; then his own spiritual director should be called to perform his duty. Lastly, it must be earnest]y impressed upon the sick person that he is not to employ superstitious practices condemned by the Church, as a definite agreement with the devil made through the intercession of witches, in order to gain his health, but he should place all confidence in the mercy of God and take medicines from the doctors trained in their art. This visiting of the sick is wont to make men blessed, both here and in heaven. But if someone is suffering from a contagious disease, this work can be done through persons suitable and protected for such a thing, especially for the protection of one's own health.
Q. 46. What is the sixth work of mercy?
R. To receive in your home guests and strangers. This work should be performed with both internal and external cheerfulness; but one should receive into his home especially those guests, who are wandering about out of their vow to visit the holy places; such are all strangers and all the impoverished, whose needs must be provided in accord with circumstances and duties, in as much as one's own capacity allows; but, one is obliged to receive into his home particularly those who are lying sick in the streets and in the public road begging for help.
Q. 47. What is the seventh work of mercy?
R. To bury the dead. This work must be performed generously, especially for those who have died in the most abject poverty, by providing them what is required for burial according to the Christian custom, just as Tobias was doing; but if one of your friends or acquaintances dies, this work will be performed by the devout conveying of the body to the place of burial with prayers for the soul of the deceased.
Q. 48. Which are the spiritual works of mercy and how many are there?
R. They are seven. First, to dissuade the sinner from sin and encourage him to a better life, as Scripture witnesses: "If any of you err from the truth, and one convert him, he must know that he who causes a sinner to be converted from the error of his way, shall save his soul from death, and shall cover a multitude of sins."  This work of mercy is the primary motive for the orthodox to offer mercy to their neighbor, for it consists of the eternal good and not the temporal. One must be careful in the performing of this work, however, lest he provoke the sinner to despair by some harm or elicit in him an excessive confidence in the divine mercy; for in both of these cases, the sinner is more hindered than helped. The middle way, therefore, must be maintained with discretion; and if, perhaps, one be incapable in this work, let him seek advice of someone wiser. One should proceed in like manner also in the conversion of heretics and schismatics.
Q. 49. What is the second spiritual work of mercy?
R. To teach the uneducated. However, one performs this work worthily, whenever he teaches the unlearned how he might believe in one God in the Trinity, the presupposition being that he himself is capable of teaching; otherwise, let him consult someone wiser and more experienced, lest they both fall into the pit, with the blind leading the blind. Then, he should teach the uneducated how to pray to God, and by what method he should perform prayers and petitions to God; besides this, he will instruct the uneducated in the divine commandments and how he can easily observe them. Finally, this work considers that we concern ourselves with the education of orphans and children, who, in the passage of time, prayers having been offered for their benefactor, will benefit the Church and the State. Otherwise, one must fear the verdict, by which the one who receives one talent is crushed when he returns it without increase.
Q. 50. What is the third spiritual work of mercy?
R. To comfort the poor with good counsel. This work is performed when men of a dissolute life are restored to a better way of life by devout and Christian instruction and advice. Then, whenever those in any affliction do not know how to find comfort, this work of counsel must be offered freely for the sake of the integrity of their life and honor. Also, this work considers that one warns his neighbor of any imminent danger of life and honor, of which he is unaware; nevertheless, let there not arise between them any enmity or further dangers.
Q. 51. What is the fourth spiritual work of mercy?
R. One must pray to the Lord God for his neighbor. This work of mercy is primarily the duty of the spiritual prelates of the Church, but also, of the laity, discussed extensively earlier in the sixth precept of the church. (Part I, Q. 92)
Q. 52. What is the fifth spiritual work of mercy?
R. To console the sorrowful. This work of mercy is to be accomplished in such a way that we do not create annoyances for anyone and thereby offer the occasion for sadness, according to the Apostle: "If it be possible, as much as is in you, have peace with all men. Revenge not yourselves, my dearly beloved; but give place unto wrath, for it is written: 'Revenge is mine, I will repay,' says the Lord."  But, this work is to be performed, whenever someone is weighed down by huge sins, or suffers with a great sickness, or is beset by the worst affliction; then we should comfort such a one.
Q. 53. What is the sixth spiritual work of mercy?
R. To suffer injuries patiently. This work of mercy is performed everywhere for Christ, whenever anything is suffered; it is to be performed patiently and generously, since Christ the Lord endured for us even greater injuries, as it is said: "Christ also suffered for us, leaving you an example that you should follow his steps."  In addition, it is not for us to wish evil on all our persecutors nor to return evil for evil, in accord with the Apostle: "To no man rendering evil for evil." Rather, if we, being innocent, suffer something, then God must be blessed and beseeched to forgive our enemies.
Q. 54. What is the seventh spiritual work of mercy?
R. To pardon our injuries. We enjoy this work of mercy whenever we forgive our enemies their committed offenses, whatever they may be, but especially with a preceding plea for forgiveness and lenience for the offender. But, this pardoning of offenses must be granted not only once every day, but seventy times seven every day, as the Savior teaches Peter: "I say not to you, till seven times; but till seventy times seven times." 
Q. 55. Which is the sixth beatitude?
R. "Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see God." 
Q. 56. What does this beatitude teach?
R. Chastity is recommended in this beatitude. Whoever wishes to see God, must be chaste, in body as well as soul and in all thoughts, since unclean thoughts disfigure the image of God and expel the grace of God from the soul.
Q. 57. Which is the seventh beatitude?
R. "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God.  Q. 58. What does this beatitude teach?
R. Those first are called blessed, who remove the enmity between men and God by unbloodly sacrifices, fasts and prayers, and thereby win God's favor. Secondly, it refers to those who remove and silence the strife and mutual hatred that exist among men, by their wise and suitable intervention, and thus make friends out of enemies. Thirdly, it has in mind those who oppose by their plans the occasions of war among kings and princes, so that the shedding of blood and the killing of men do not ensue.
Q. 59. Which is the eighth beatitude?
R. "Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice's sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." 
Q. 60. What does this beatitude teach?
R. Possessing this beatitude are they who speak the truth in chastising the faults of the guilty; they suffer great ill-will, such that even their life is sometimes taken, just as John the Baptist suffered from Herod, and others. All teachers, doctors of the Church, preachers and confessors should regard this, for they often suffer hatred, ingratitude, etc. of their assigned students and penitents because of their teaching and beneficial warnings.
Q. 61. Which is the ninth beatitude?
R. "Blessed are you when they shall revile you, and persecute you, and speak all that is evil against you, untruly, for my sake: be glad and rejoice, for your reward is very great in heaven." 
Q. 62. What is contained in this beatitude?
R. In possession of this beatitude are the apostles, martyrs and all who bear persecution, insults and slander for the sake of the orthodox catholic faith, and are deprived of their possessions, honor and blessings, are expelled from the cities, and are even violently robbed of their life by bloodshed.
Q. 63. What should be thought of those works, for which the beatitudes are promised?
R. First, the good works are connected among themselves by such a tight bond, that whoever truly possesses one virtue, will posses even all the others, but whoever truly lacks one, will be completely lacking also in all the others. Secondly, these good works, already mentioned, must be so considered, that whoever excels in them, will gain not only the eternal beatitude in heaven, but also will be blessed in the possession of temporal goods, according to the words of Christ: "And every one that has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands for my name's sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall possess life everlasting."  And elsewhere: "There is no man who has left house or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or children, or lands, for my sake and for the gospel, who shall not receive a hundred times as much, now in this time: houses and brothers, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions, and in the world to come life everlasting."