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Q. 51. How should we sign ourselves with the Holy Cross?

R. You should make the sign of the cross with the right hand, touching the forehead with three fingers and saying the words: "In the name of the Father." Secondly, you should say the words "and the Son," as you place the same hand on the breast. Thirdly, you say "and the Holy Spirit" at your right shoulder and "holy" at your left. (41) When you have crossed yourself thusly with the sign of the Holy Cross, you should finish with the word "Amen". After having made the sign of the holy cross, you ought to say: "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me a sinner, Amen."


Q. 52. Which is the fifth article of faith?

R. "Who resurrected from the dead on the third day according to the Scriptures." (42)


Q. 53. What does this article of faith teach?

R. It teaches two things: first, that Christ the Lord resurrected from the dead by the power of his divinity (43), just as the Prophets and the Psalms speak of him; secondly, it teaches that he really resurrected from the dead in the same body in which he was born.


Q. 54. Where is it written in Scripture that Christ had to suffer so and die, as well as rise from the dead on the third day?

R. The Scripture is twofold: part in the old law, part in the new. The former announced that Christ was going to come, as well as how and why he would save the human race through his suffering, death and resurrection from the dead; according to these Scriptures Christ the Lord was bound to accomplish all things. From the Scripture of the new law it can be determined that he accomplished all these things and that he came in the manner it is written about him, as he even says of himself: "And the Son of Man goes indeed, as it is written about him."[135] Even after his resurrection from the dead, he says to the two traveling Apostles: "Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and so to enter into his glory? And beginning with Moses and all the prophets, he expounded to them in all the Scriptures, the things that were concerning him."[136] And since the Scriptures of the old law ought to have authority for us, the Apostle says of them: "And we have the more firm prophetical word; whereunto you do well to attend, as to a light that shines in a dark place, until the day dawns and the day star arises in your hearts."[137] And the Evangelists assure us of the fact that what was accomplished is in accord with these Scriptures, as the Apostle says: "And Christ died for our sins, according to the scriptures: and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day, according to the scriptures; and that he was seen by Cephas; and after that by the eleven. Then was he seen by more than five hundred brothers at once, of whom many remain until this present, and some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen by James, then by all the apostles. And last of all, he was seen also by me, as by one born out of due time."[138] The Prophet Jonas was a figure of the resurrection of Christ, which figure Christ the Lord applied to his own self, speaking to the Hebrews: "An evil and adulterous generation seeks a sign: and a sign shall not be given it, but the sign of Jonas the Prophet. For as Jonas was in the whale's belly three days and three nights: so shall the Son of man be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights."[139]


Q. 55. Which is the sixth article of faith?

R. "Who ascended into the heavens, and sits at the right hand of God the Father." (44)


Q. 56. How many things does this article of faith teach?

R. This article teaches four things. First (sic), that he ascended into heaven in the same body, in which he suffered and resurrected from the dead, and sits at the right hand of the Father, in glory and praise. (45) Secondly, it teaches that he ascended into heaven only as man, since as God he always was in heaven and everywhere. Thirdly, it teaches that he never abandoned that humanity, which he once took from the Virgin Mary, and in which he will come again in judgment, just as the Angels announced to the Apostles: "This Jesus who is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come, as you have seen him going into heaven."[140] Fourthly, it teaches that Christ is in heaven according to his humanity, but not on earth (46), the singular exception being the most holy Eucharist, wherein Christ himself is really present through transubstantiation of the substance of bread into the substance of his holy body and through the transubstantiation of the substance of wine into the substance of his most precious blood Wherefore should we revere the most holy Eucharist and adore it by the worship of latria, because such is due the Savior himself.


Q. 57. Which is the seventh article of faith?

R. "Who will come again with glory in order to judge the living and the dead, of whose kingdom there will be no end." (47)


Q. 58. What does this article of faith teach?

R. It teaches three things. First, that Christ will return in order to judge the living and the dead, as he describes himself: "And when the Son of man shall come in his Majesty, and all the angels with him . . .[141] And he will come as swiftly as "lightning comes out of the east and appears even in the west."[142] "But of that day and hour nobody knows, not even the Angels."[143] Nevertheless, these things should precede that day: the gospel is to be preached to all nations; the Anti-Christ will come; great wars will occur along with famines, plagues and other kindred things. One might express this succinctly in accord with Christ's words: "For there shall be then great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, neither shall be."[144] The Apostle speaks expressly of this judgment with these words: "I charge you before God and Jesus Christ, who shall judge the living and dead, by his coming, and his kingdom."[145]


Q. 59. Secondly, what does this article teach?

R. It teaches of the last judgment, when men will give an account of their thoughts, words and deeds, according to Scripture: "But I say to you that every idle word that men shall speak, they shall render an account for it on the day of judgment."[146] And the Apostle says: "Therefore, judge not before the time, until the Lord comes, who will both bring to light the hidden things of darkness and make manifest the counsels of the hearts; and then every men shall have praise from God.[147]


Q. 60. Thirdly, what does this article teach?

R. It teaches that on that day everyone will receive eternal and perfect payment for their deeds. Some will hear the verdict "Come, you blessed of my Father, possess the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world."[148] But others will hear this verdict: "Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels."[149] "Where their worm does not die and the fire is not extinguished."[150]


Q. 61. Will all men then give an account of their works, each one individually (48) giving an account, and will there be a particular judgment?

R. Although there will not be rendered an account of one's life on that day of last judgment, since God knows all things, yet anyone knowing his sins at the time of death will recognize even more so after his death what he has merited. For if indeed one's works will be known to a man, even also will he be aware of the verdict of God, as St. Gregory of Nazianzus says: "I am persuaded by the words of the wise to believe that every fair and God-beloved soul, when freed from the chains of the body, departs hence and immediately rejoices in the total perception and contemplation of the good which awaits it (in as much as that which covered the mind with darkness has been wiped away or cast aside of whatever other word this reality should be called „I don't know) and experiences a wonderful pleasure and happily flies to the Lord, this life having been fled, as from a grave prison, and having shaken off the fetters by which the wings of the mind were accustomed to be held down, and enters into the happiness concealed in the image which it now perceives; and later when it receives its recognized flesh from the earth, which both gave it and accepted it in faith (how this happens is known to him who joined them together and dissolved them) and then it also will be allowed to enter the inheritance of the heavenly glory."[151] So also in regard to the souls of the sinners, it is to be thought that certainly they themselves are aware of the damnation that they are to receive. Although both good and evil do not have perfect payment for their deeds before the last judgment, nevertheless, because they are not in the same state, they are not sent to the same place. But, it is clear that this would be impossible before the last judgment without a particular judgment. Therefore, there is a particular judgment. And when we say that God does not demand from us an account of our life, it must be understood that an account of our life will not be given according to our manner.


Q. 62. Are the souls of the blessed in equal rank after death?

R. Just as the souls depart from the world in unequal grace, so too they are not found to be in the same rank after their departure from the world, in accord with the teaching of Christ: "In my Father's house there are many mansions.''[152] And elsewhere: "Many Sins are forgiven her because she has loved much. But to whom less is forgiven, he loves ."[153] And the Apostle says: "Who will render to every man according to his works.''[154]


Q. 63. How must one consider those who die in the wrath of God?

R. One must consider them in the same fashion, that some will suffer less punishment and some greater after the last judgment, as it is said: "And that servant who knew the will of his lord, and prepared not himself, and did not according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes; but he that knew not, and did things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes."[155]


Q. 64. Are there intermediate souls, between the blessed and the damned?

R. No men of this type are found; nevertheless, many sinners are freed from the prisons of hell, but not though their own penitence or confession, just as Scripture says: "Who shall confess to you in hell?"[156] And elsewhere: "The dead shall not praise you, O Lord, nor any of them that go down to hell."[157] But they are freed through the good works of the living and the Church's prayers for them, most of all through the unbloody sacrifice, which is offered on certain days for all the living and the dead, even as Christ the Lord died for the very same. That such souls are not freed by their own power, St. Theophylactus, in explaining those words of Christ, speaks thus: "'But that you may know that the Son has power on earth to forgive sin.'[158] But see," he says, "that on this earth sins are forgiven. For as long as we are on earth, we will be able to blot out our sins: after we shall have traveled from this earth, we shall no longer be able to wipe away our sins through confession, for the gate is closed."[159] And elsewhere before those words: "Our hands and feet have been tied; that is, his powers alone", he says, "are in operation. For in the present age we can function, but in the future age all the operative powers of the soul are bound, and nothing good can come about through the forgiveness of sinners."[160] And elsewhere: "After this very life there is no time for penance and works."[161] It is evident from these words that the soul after death can neither free itself, nor do penance, nor do any good, by means of which it might be delivered from the prisons of hell, but only through the unbloody sacrifice, the prayers of the Church and almsgiving, which the living are accustomed to perform for them. It is by means of these that the souls receive the greatest aid and are freed from the prisons of hell.


Q. 65. If, indeed, prayers and pious works are customarily performed for the dead, how is one to regard them?

R. The same Theophylactus speaks about this in explaining the words of Christ the Lord: "'Fear him who has power to cast into hell.'[162] Be mindful", he say, "that he did not say: 'Fear him, whom after he has killed, I will send into hell,' but that he has the power to send. For the sinners who die are not cast into hell; but it rests in the power of God such that he may even pardon them. But I say this because of the sacrifices and almsgivings made for the sake of the dead, which works are of no small benefit even for those who have died in grave sins. It is not so certain, therefore, that God sends to hell one who has killed, but rather that he does have the power to send him. And so let us not cease working hard through almsgiving and prayers to win over him, who has indeed the power of sending, so that he may not use this power fully but be able to pardon."[163] And so, it is deduced from the teaching of Sacred Scripture and this Father that we are obliged to pray to God certainly for such deceased, to offer the unbloody sacrifices and give alms, since they cannot do the same for themselves.


Q. 66. How must one consider the purgatorial fire?

R. No Scripture makes mention of the fact that after death there is a temporal punishment that cleanses souls; what is more, the opinion of Origen was condemned by the Church at the second Council of Constantinople because of this. Also, the soul can receive no sacraments after death; and if it were then to make satisfaction for its sins, it would have to perform a part of the sacrament of holy Penance, which would be contrary to the orthodox teaching. Therefore, the Church rightly performs for them the unbloody sacrifice and prayers, but they do not cleanse themselves by suffering something. But, the Church never maintained that which pertains to the fanciful stories of some concerning the souls of their dead, who have not done penance and are punished, as it were, in streams, springs and swamps.


Q. 67. Which particular place is intended for the souls of those who die in the grace of God?

R. The Hand of God is the place of those souls that depart from this life in the grace of God after having done penance for their sins. For so says Sacred Scripture: "But the souls of the just are in the hand of God, and the torment (of death) shall not touch them."[164] Their place is also called "Paradise", as Christ himself the Lord says to the thief on the cross: "Amen I say to you, this day you shall be with me in paradise."[165] Their place is also called the "Bosom of Abraham". (49) Finally, it is known as the "Kingdom of heaven", even as Christ the Lord taught: "And I say to you that many shall come from the east and the west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven."[166] And so, one will not err if he calls this place by any of the above names, as long as he knows that the souls are in the grace of God and the kingdom of heaven, and just as the church hymns repeatedly sing„ "and in heaven".


Q. 68. But where is the place of those souls that leave the body in the wrath of God?

R. There place is called various names. First, it is called "hell", to which the devil was chased from heaven, as the Prophet says: "I will be like the most High," the devil said; "but yet you shall be brought down to hell, into the depth of the pit."[167] It is called "eternal fire", for Scripture says: "Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels."[168] It is called "darkness", for the Lord said in the same place: "And cast out the unprofitable servant into the exterior darkness; there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth."[169] It is also called other names, all of which indicate that it is a place of God's wrath and condemnation, where all those souls go that leave this life in the wrath of God without hope of salvation. Nevertheless, it might well be declared that the souls of the just, granted that they are in heaven, have not received the perfect crown before the last judgment, just as the souls of the condemned do not suffer perfect punishment; but, after the last judgment, these souls together with their bodies will have received the crown of glory and perfect punishment.


Q. 69. Which is the eighth article of faith?

R. "And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified, and who spoke through the prophets."


Q. 70. What does this article of faith teach?

R. It teaches three things. First, that the Holy Spirit is God, co-essential with the Father and Son, which fact is evident from the words of the Apostle who says: "Now there are diversities of graces, but the same Spirit. And there are diversities of ministries, but the same Lord. And there are diversities of operations, but the same God, who works all in all."[170] And elsewhere: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Spirit."[171] Between them there is no other causality except that which the Father has immediately and equally in regard to the Son and the Holy Spirit, although sometimes the Holy Spirit is placed first and sometimes it is the Son, for they are of the same nature and glory. Peter proclaims this very thing, speaking in the Acts of the Apostles: "Ananias, why has Satan tempted your heart, that you should lie to the Holy Spirit?"[172] And in conclusion he adds the words: "You have not lied to men, but to God."[173] Therefore, the Holy Spirit is God; more extensively was this treated in the first article.


Q. 71. Secondly, what does this article of faith teach?

R. It teaches that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father alone, as principle and origin of divinity, which the Savior himself teaches us, when he says: "But when the Paraclete comes, whom I will send you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father."[174] St. Athanasius (50) professes this teaching in his Creed: "The Holy Spirit is from the Father, neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but proceeding. God the Father himself alone is principle of both and he is unbegotten. But the Son is caused and begotten of the Father alone, and the Holy Spirit is caused by and proceeds from the Father alone, but is sent to the world through the Son."[175] St. Gregory speaks of the same thing thus: "The Holy Spirit, who proceeds from the Father, is no creature, in as much as he proceeds from the Father; in as much as he is not begotten, he is not the Son; but in as much as he is between the Unbegotten and the Begotten, he is God."[176] This matter is treated more extensively in the first article. And so let it suffice now, as indeed Christ himself taught and the Eastern Orthodox- catholic Church believes, and was professed in the Second Ecumenical Council, which determined the Creed without the addition "and from the Son", as the Creed itself declares; and the Church opposed those who added "and from the Son", not only the Eastern Orthodox-catholic Church, but also the Western Roman Church. Bearing witness to this are the two silver tablets, one in Greek script, the other in Latin, whereupon the Symbol of faith was observed without the addition of the particle „ "and from the Son." These tablets were placed in the Church of SS. Peter and Paul (sic) at the command of Leo III. (51) Thus, whoever remains steadfastly and resolutely in this faith, is certain of his eternal salvation, and is certain of it because he is in close agreement with the Church.


Q. 72. Thirdly, what does this article of faith teach?

R. It teaches that the Holy Spirit, through sundry authors, is the composer of Sacred Scripture, both the Old Law as well as the New. In such a manner, therefore, the Scripture of the Old Testament as well as the New is the teaching of the Holy Spirit. For this reason, believe that whatever was determined in all the General Councils and the orthodox local councils, is completely from the Holy Spirit, as was declared in the Council of the Apostles: "For it has seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us."[177] All the other orthodox councils were concluded by this example.


Q. 73. How many and which are the gifts of the Holy Spirit?

R. Seven, as mentioned by Scripture in the Apocalypse: "There were seven lamps burning before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God."[178] These gifts, therefore, or rather the Holy Spirit himself is found more abundantly and more perfectly in Christ the Lord than in man, as the Prophet says: "And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him: the spirit of wisdom, and of understanding, the spirit of counsel, and of fortitude, the spirit of knowledge, and of godliness. And he shall be filled with the spirit of the fear of the Lord."[179] John the Evangelist confirms this: "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelled among us, and we saw his glory, the glory as it were of the only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth; and of his fullness we all have received, and grace for grace."[180] Since the Spirit was in him, being co-essential to him according to divinity, it filled him with wisdom, as it was said: "And the child grew, and waxed strong in the Spirit (52), full of wisdom; and the grace of God was in him."[181] All these things should be understood in accord with his humanity.


Q. 74. Which is the first gift of the Holy Spirit?

R. The first gift is wisdom, that wisdom from above, about which the Apostle says: "But the wisdom, that is from above, first indeed is chaste, then peaceable, modest, easy to be persuaded, consenting to the good, full of mercy and good fruits, without judging, without dissimulation."[182] Opposed to this wisdom is carnal wisdom, according to the Apostle: "In simplicity of heart and sincerity of God, and not in carnal wisdom, but in the grace of God, we have conversed in this world."[183] Citing Scripture of the Old Law, the same Apostle speaks thus against this carnal and worldly wisdom: "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and the prudence of the prudent I will reject. Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this world? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?"[184]


Q. 75. Which is the second gift of the Holy Spirit?

R. The gift of understanding, or the comprehension of the mysteries as of the divine will, about which Scripture says: "God gave wisdom and understanding,"[185] in every book and wisdom. (53) In addition: "God gave Daniel the understanding also of all visions and dreams."[186] Yet in another place: "Then he opened their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures."[187] And the holy Apostle says: "For the Lord will give you in all things understanding."[188] Contrary to this understanding is foolishness, unbelief, about which the Savior himself speaks: "O foolish, and slow of heart to believe in all things which the Prophets have spoken."[189] Elsewhere the Apostle says: "Are you so foolish, that, whereas you began in the spirit, you would now be made perfect by the flesh?"[190]


Q. 76. Which is the third gift of the Holy Spirit?

R. The third gift of the Holy Spirit is counsel, because it is in harmony with the divine glory and the salvation of the human soul and with its very own justice, concerning which Holy Scripture says: "For I have not spared to declare to you all the counsel of God."[191] Opposed to this is the counsel of the wicked, spoken of in the Psalm: "Blessed is the man who has not walked in the counsel of the ungodly"[192] And elsewhere: "The Lord brings to naught the counsels of nations; and he rejects the devices of people."[193]


Q. 77. Which is the fourth gift of the Holy Spirit?

R. It is fortitude. For by this strength maintained in the faith all temptations are turned back. Holy Scripture speaks of this thus: "Watch, stand fast in the faith, do manfully and be strengthened."[194] In another place: "Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate of justice, and your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace, in all things taking the shield of faith, wherewith you may be able to extinguish all the fiery darts of the most wicked one. And take for yourself the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the spirit, which is the word of God."[195] The opposite of fortitude is fear. Christ the Lord enjoins us not to have such fear when he says: "Be not afraid of them who kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do"[196] The Psalmist speaks of this: "There have they trembled for fear, where there was no fear "[197]


Q. 78 Which is the fifth gift of the Holy Spirit?

R. Knowledge The Psalm expresses this knowledge: "He that chastises nations, shall he not rebuke, he that teaches man knowledge?"[198] Another Prophet says: "And I will give you pastors according to my own heart, and they shall feed you with knowledge and doctrine."[199] This knowledge should include recognizing and knowing the will of God as well as his law; opposed to this knowledge is ignorance of the law and will of God, as expressed by the Psalm: "Pour out your wrath upon the nations that have not known you, and upon the kingdoms that have not called upon your name."[200]


Q. 79. Which is the sixth gift of the Holy Spirit?

R. Piety, which with correct faith is based on continuous prayer and good works; the Apostle speaks about it thus: "But godliness is profitable to all things, having promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come."[201] But those are truly called pious who avoid all wickedness and sin, having perseveringly completed their prayers. Piety is not superficial as that of the Pharisees, but should be sincere and internal of the heart, lest it be said: "These people honor me with their lips, but their heart is far from me"[202] Or: "You blind Pharisee, first make clean the inside of the cup and the dish, that the outside may become clean."[203]


Q. 80. Which is the seventh gift of the Holy Spirit?

R. Fear of the Lord, which ought to be childlike and not servile, and as the Psalm says of it: "Fear the Lord, all you his saints, for there is no want to them that fear him."[204] But servile fear is that which the Apostle describes: "Fear is not in charity, but perfect charity casts our fear, because fear has pain; and he that fears, is not perfected in charity "[205] In such a manner, therefore, Sacred Scripture commands to fear God out of love, when it says: "you that fear the Lord, praise him; all you the seed of Jacob, glorify him Let all the seed of Israel fear him "[206] Everyone who shall fear the Lord with this fear, observes thereby his precepts, in accord with the saying: "If anyone love me, he will keep my word "[207]


Q. 81. How many are the fruits of the Holy Spirit?

R. The Apostle Paul numbers the fruits of the Holy Spirit or the signs of the grace of God as nine: charity, joy, peace, patience, kindness, mercy, faith, gentleness and continence. ( 54) It ought also to be believed that even the other virtues may be referred to as fruits of the Holy Spirit, because they come from him, and he himself presides over the works of man that they might be perfected; Paul does not contradict this point, but "against such there is no law."[208]


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